Emergency Triage, Treat, and Transport (ET3) Model

Have questions about the ET3 Model? Visit our FAQ page for answers.

Emergency Triage, Treat, and Transport (ET3) is a voluntary, five-year payment model that will provide greater flexibility to ambulance care teams to address emergency health care needs of Medicare Fee-for-Service (FFS) beneficiaries following a 911 call. Under the ET3 model, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) will pay participating ambulance suppliers and providers to 1) transport an individual to a hospital emergency department (ED) or other destination covered under the regulations, 2) transport to an alternative destination (such as a primary care doctor’s office or an urgent care clinic), or 3) provide treatment in place with a qualified health care practitioner, either on the scene or connected using telehealth. The model will allow beneficiaries to access the most appropriate emergency services at the right time and place. The model will also encourage local governments, their designees, or other entities that operate or have authority over one or more 911 dispatches to promote successful model implementation by establishing a medical triage line for low-acuity 911 calls. As a result, the ET3 model aims to improve quality and lower costs by reducing avoidable transports to the ED and unnecessary hospitalizations following those transports.

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Currently, Medicare regulations only allow payment for emergency ground ambulance services when individuals are transported to hospitals, critical access hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, and dialysis centers. Most beneficiaries who call 911 with a medical emergency are therefore transported to one of these facilities, and most often to a hospital ED, even when a lower-acuity destination may more appropriately meet an individual’s needs.

Model Details

With the support of local governments, their designees, or other entities that operate or have authority over one or more 911 dispatches, ambulance suppliers and providers will triage people seeking emergency care based on their presenting needs. The model aims to ensure Medicare Fee-For-Service beneficiaries receive the most appropriate care, at the right time, and in the right place. The model may help make EMS systems more efficient and will provide beneficiaries broader access to the care they need. Beneficiaries who receive treatment from alternative destinations may also save on out-of-pocket costs. An individual can always choose to be brought to an ED if he/she prefers.

The ET3 Model aims to reduce expenditures and preserve or enhance quality of care by:

  • Providing person-centered care, such that beneficiaries receive the appropriate level of care delivered safely at the right time and place while having greater control of their healthcare through the availability of more options
  • Encouraging appropriate utilization of services to meet health care needs effectively.
  • Increasing efficiency in the EMS system to more readily respond to and focus on high-acuity cases, such as heart attacks and strokes.


The key participants of the ET3 model will be Medicare-enrolled ambulance service suppliers and hospital-owned ambulance providers. In addition, to advance regional alignment, local governments, their designees, or other entities that operate or have authority over one or more 911 dispatches in geographic areas where ambulance suppliers and providers have been selected to participate in the model will have an opportunity to access cooperative agreement funding.

Any individual who calls 911 and is connected to a dispatch system that has incorporated a medical triage line under the model would be screened for eligibility for medical triage services prior to ambulance initiation. Upon arriving on scene, participating ambulance suppliers and providers may triage Medicare FFS beneficiaries to one of the model’s interventions upon ambulance dispatch following a 911 call. As part of a multi-payer alignment strategy, the Innovation Center will encourage ET3 model participants to partner with additional payers, including state Medicaid agencies, to provide similar interventions to all people in their geographic areas.


The ET3 Model had the Request For Applications (RFA) Online Portal open from August 5, 2019 through October 5, 2019. Please note, additional rounds of the RFA and the NOFO may be scheduled, but are not guaranteed.

The Innovation Center released a RFA (PDF) in Summer 2019 to solicit Medicare-enrolled ambulance suppliers and providers. Once participants have been selected and announced, the Innovation Center anticipates issuing a Notice of Funding Opportunity (NOFO) in Spring 2020 for up to 40 two-year cooperative agreements, available to local governments, their designees, or other entities that operate or have authority over one or more 911 dispatches in geographic locations where ambulance suppliers and providers have been selected to participate.

The Innovation Center anticipates utilizing a phased approach with up to three rounds of RFAs and up to two releases of NOFOs, however, additional rounds are not guaranteed. If additional rounds are announced, there will be staggered performance start dates. This potential staged approach across multiple application rounds is designed to advance key design elements of the ET3 Model and optimize overall impact, including regional uptake of its innovations and multi-payer alignment.


The ET3 Model will have a five-year performance period. The anticipated start date is now Spring 2020. The performance period for all participants, regardless of start date, will end at the same time; thus, only applicants selected through the first RFA will be able to participate through the full five years.

If you are interested in additional information or have questions about the Emergency Triage, Treat, and Transport (ET3) Model, please review the Frequently Asked Questions page or contact ET3model@cms.hhs.gov.


Request for Applications (RFA)

Additional Information